What is Infertility?

What Is Infertility? – Overview

If you’ve tried for a year to get pregnant and haven’t been successful, you’ve been diagnosed with infertility. If you are a woman over 35, it signifies that you have tried becoming pregnant for six months and have been unsuccessful.

A woman may also be diagnosed with infertility if she can conceive but cannot carry a pregnancy to term.

One who has never been able to conceive will be diagnosed with primary infertility. A woman who has at least one previous successful pregnancy will be given a secondary infertility diagnosis.

The issue of infertility affects men and women equally. Infertility can also affect men. Men and women are just as prone to experience fertility issues.
Approximately one-third of infertility cases can be related to female infertility. In contrast, another third of infertility cases can be ascribed to issues with men, according to the Office on Women’s Health Trusted Source.

What Types of Infertility

Primary Happens when a woman can’t get pregnant again after having at least one successful pregnancy.

Secondary A woman who was never pregnant and who can’t conceive after a year of not using birth control.

Causes Of Infertility

A combination of male and female infertility may be to blame for the remaining third of instances, or there may be no recognized cause.

Women’s Reasons 

Ovulation issues account for the majority of occurrences of female infertility. There are no eggs to be fertilized without ovulation. Menstrual cycles that are inconsistent or nonexistent are some indicators that a woman is not ovulating normally.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome frequently contributes to ovarian dysfunction (PCOS). Ovulation can be disrupted by PCOS, a hormone imbalance condition.

The most frequent reason for female infertility is PCOS. Another reason for ovulation issues is primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). When a woman’s ovaries quit functioning normally before age 40, POI happens. Early menopause is not the same as POI.

Less frequent reasons for female reproductive issues include:

• Blocked fallopian tubes as a result of endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory illness, or ectopic pregnancy surgery

• Unhealthy uterine conditions

• Uterine fibroids are aggregates of muscle and tissue on the uterine walls that are not malignant.

Men’s Reasons 

In men is typically brought on by:

• A condition known as varicocele (VAIR-ih-koh-seel). This occurs when a man has one or more testicles with massive veins. The testicles warm as a result. The amount or morphology of the sperm might be impacted by heat.

• Other circumstances that result in men producing either too little or no sperm.

• The sperm moving. The sperm’s form might be to blame for this. Sperm can occasionally become blocked by wounds or other injuries to the reproductive system.
Sometimes a man has sperm-related issues from birth. Sometimes problems arise later in life as a result of disease or injury. For instance, men with cystic fibrosis are frequently infertile.

Risk Factors for Infertility

• Age (over age 35 for women or over 40 for men).
• Diabetes.
• Eating disorders, such as bulimia and anorexia nervosa.
• Excessive drinking.
• Exposure to environmental contaminants like pesticides and lead
• Excessive exercise
• Various cancer therapies, such as radiation therapy.
• Sexually transmissible conditions (STDs).
• Smoking.
• Stress.
• Addiction to drugs.
• Weight issues (obesity or underweight).

Diagnosis

These tests can aid in identifying or eliminating a female reproductive issue:

• Exam of the pelvis: Your doctor will examine your pelvis and take a Pap test to look for any structural issues or disease symptoms.

• Blood test: A blood test can be used to measure thyroid hormones as well as other hormone levels.

• Transvaginal ultrasound: To check for reproductive system issues, your doctor inserts an ultrasound probe into the vagina.

• Hysteroscopy: To inspect the uterus, your doctor will introduce a tiny, illuminated tube (a hysteroscope) into the vagina.

• Transvaginal ultrasound is performed while saline (sterile salt water) is injected into the uterus during a saline sonohysterogram (SIS). It is simpler to look into a uterus that is full.

• An injected dye is captured by X-rays as it passes through the fallopian tubes during a hysterosalpingogram (HSG). This examination seeks obstructions.

• Laparoscopy.

Treatment of Infertility

Medicine, surgery, artificial insemination, and assisted reproductive technology are all options for treating infertility. These therapies are frequently combined. It is typically treated with medication or surgery.

Therapies are recommended by doctors depending on:

• Test outcomes

• How long has the couple been trying to conceive?

• Both the male and the woman’s ages

• The spouses’ general health

• The partners’ preferences

Men’s infertility is frequently managed by doctors in the following ways:

Doctors can assist males with sexual issues like impotence or early ejaculation. In these circumstances, behavioral treatment and/or medications may be used.
not enough sperm.

Surgery may occasionally be able to address the root of the issue. In other instances, medical professionals surgically remove sperm from the male reproductive system. Antibiotics also may be place to treat the infected sperm.

Semen motor Sometimes semen has no sperm because of a block in the man’s system. In some cases, surgery can correct the problem.
In women, some physical problems can also be corrected with surgery.

Several fertility medicines are used to treat women with ovulation problems. It is essential to talk with your doctor about the pros and cons of these medicines. You should understand the possible dangers, benefits, and side effects.

References

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/16083-infertility-causes

https://www.healthline.com/health/infertility

https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/infertility

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